The Astrophysics of the Non-Exploding Universe

A critique of the Big-Bang Theory and an attempt to explain the heating and acceleration of the solar corona and wind - with special attention to Plasma Redshift and other non-Doppler redshift theories.

Part of the Hubble ultra-deep field - is this consistent with the Big Bang Theory?

Here you will find discussion of recent observations which I argue are inconsistent with the Big Bang Theory and which are consistent with a relatively static Universe - where the redshift of light from distant galaxies, quasars, supernovae, gamma-ray bursters etc. occurs in the plasma in the space around them, and between these objects and Earth. 

This site discusses some theories which could (or are believed to by some people) explain this redshift - and other processes such as the heating of the solar corona, intrinsic redshift in hot galaxies etc.  These include:
  • Redshift of photons penetrating a hot plasma - Ari Brynjolfsson 2004.
  • My (Robin Whittle) "plasma redshift" theory (AKA "sparse particle redshift and scattering").
  • Sisir Roy and colleagues who propose an extension of the Wolf Effect to explain "intrinsic" redshift in quasars.  They also have done great research showing that many quasars have a significant redshift beyond that related to their distance.
  • Halton Arp's proposal of Machian mass of "young" matter, such as in quasars ejected from galaxies, producing longer wavelength resonance lines.
  • CREIL (Coherent Raman Effects on Incoherent Light) from Jacques Moret-Baily.
  • Thomas Smid's theory ( of light pulses being stretched by the electric fields between particles in low density plasmas. (Added 2006-03-11.)
  • Lyndon Ashmore's Tired Light theory (
I think the only two theories which are likely to be valid are Ari Brynjolfsson's and mine.  If these theories work as well as their originators intend, they could explain:
  • The redshift in space near quasars and at least some kinds of galaxy.
  • The heating and acceleration of the solar corona. (No-one else has a plausible theory for this spectacular phenomena.)
  • The observed cosmological redshift - the minimum redshift value of distant objects according to the Hubble "constant".
  • Excess redshift in hot stars (Halton Arp's K-effect - see Ari Brynjolfsson's paper 5.6.4).
Another way of viewing this project is that since the heating and acceleration of the solar corona and wind is not at all explained by current magnetic wave theories (or previous acoustic wave theories), unless we invoke neutrinos of novel forces, we must conclude that the energy and momentum deposition occurs due to sunlight's interaction with the sparse plasma.  Conventional electrodynamics predicts that sunlight's interaction with the corona and wind is insignificant, so I conclude there must be something wrong with (quantum) electrodynamics.  If and when my tentative theory on how light interacts with sparse plasmas is fully developed, I intend that it provide a good explanation of the heating and momentum deposition in the corona and wind.  Such an interaction (there may be two or more mechanisms, for heating and momentum deposition) is entirely in accordance with observation - no-one has ever observed the heating and acceleration taking place in the absence of sunlight, and the strength of the interaction seems to scale directly with the brightness of the sunlight.  The objections seem to be purely theoretical - so I think the conventional theories need to be questioned. 

I believe that it is likely that a fully developed electrodynamics which properly explains the heating and acceleration of the solar corona would also provide a mechanism by which light would be redshifted in the intergalactic medium.  This would probably disprove the Big Bang Theory (BBT).

So this project is not timid or simply fiddling at the edges.  Maybe only part of it will turn out to be true.  Maybe none will be, so at least this path to nowhere will be signposted. If it is successful, the BBT will be abandoned.  Also, the quantization of electromagnetic radiation, while it is in transit, will be probably be seriously questioned or disproven.  I think it is this "photon" conception of electromagnetic radiation which seems to have blocked people from conceiving of short coherence length light being like little ripples, and considering how each ripple would be slowed down by each particle of plasma it encounters, once the particle spacing in a sparse plasma significantly exceeds the length of the ripples (AKA the coherence length of the light).

In the meantime, I hope people will recognise that the BBT and Quantum Electrodynamics are theories.  Since these theories can't explain something spectacular and important for cosmology, physics and life on Earth - the heating and acceleration of the solar corona and wind - we can't be sure they are really correct.
Astrophysics of the non-exploding universe - no big-bang

My wife Tina tells me that in her view, the Universe is not exploding at all and that it is, in fact, sitting politely and minding its manners.

This project is currently simmering

However, in November 2008, I added a bunch of material on close QSO pairs and the failure to find the Transverse Proximity Effect with a "foreground" quasar.  See: plasma-redshift-1/#TPE.

In September 2006 I roughly estimated the acceleration of an ion, due to sunlight at 1AU, which would be required to explain the acceleration of the solar wind due to radiation pressure.  I also calculated an impulse with the same spectrum as the photosphere's blackbody light

In January 2007 I am discussing the quantum theory of light on sci.physics.research .

In February 2007, two papers of great interest - including the work of Sisir Roy and colleagues - and were published on  I mention these on the simmering page.

For these developments, please see:
The above page also has some of the contributions I made to discussions on sci.astro.research and sci.physics.research, with some links to critiques which are relevant to my theory.

An earlier page:
has my thinking (as at April 2005) on sparse-particle redshift and scattering, various updates and links to the sci.astro.research and sci.physics.research Usenet newsgroups where significant discussions have taken place.

In late 2008, I have an idea for the heating mechanism in the solar corona which I have not yet written up.  It will take a long time to develop this idea with suitable mathematics and computer modelling.

In October 2008, thanks to Eric Lerner's Alternative Cosmology Group Newsletter I learnt of a paper by David Kirkman and David Tytler on the Transverse Proximity Effect with a foreground quasar.  They fail to find the effect with 130 QSO pairs.  Prior to this study, there were only a handful of attempts to find the effect, and none of them found it.  Finding this effect would be an excellent validation of the BBT's redshift distance relation.  Failure to find it is excellent evidence that the BBT is wrong.  The only apparent way of holding on to the BBT theory in the face of these observations is to argue that QSOs only shine for a million years or so - yet there is plenty of evidence that they last much longer than this.  

The transverse proximity effect in the z ~ 2 Lyman-alpha forest suggests QSO episodic lifetimes of ~1 Myr
David Kirkman, David Tytler  2008-09-12 Submitted for publication in MNRAS



This is the main
page of the site

My Plasma Redshift theory and a link to and brief discussion of Ari Brynjolfsson's much more mathematically developed Plasma Redshift theory.  This is a very long page - a rambling treatise.  I plan a much better written, more comprehensive, expandable, version on multiple pages.  This page also contains links to some of the CREIL papers and to other relevant sites, discussion forums, books, resources etc.  Minor update on 2006-09-08 - link to research on CMB and galaxy clusters.  Transverse Proximity Effect updates in November 2008.
Some material from 2004 concerning observations which contradict the predictions of the Big Bang Theory (BBT) - or which I regard as evidence which contradicts or challenges the BBT, even though the researchers may not think of their research this way.  This includes the failure to find the Transverse Proximity Effect with a foreground quasar, which is still the case in early 2007.  Sorry I don't have time to write full accounts of all these interesting things and keep them up to date.  This page also discusses some well-known problems with the BBT, especially regarding quasars, and Jerry Jenkins' critique of the conventional interpretations of supernovae 1a light curves. 
PDF of a 1916 paper on the anomalous redshift of some lines near the solar limb, together with links to various other papers on this long-debated matter.
Nothing specifically to do with astrophysics, but a handy chart comparing different measures of energy, from fractions of electron volts to megatons of TNT exploded, weight of matter destroyed and the Earth's orbital kinetic energy.
pictures/ Some images are here - including details of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field, from which the above image of distant galaxies was taken.

2008 November 3  Robin Whittle   This site and my main website is on a server I run in Dallas Texas at